Take action: Aerobic exercise has always been regarded as critical to improving brain health, but strength training is also key. In fact, the two modes of exercise benefit the brain differently, which is why it’s best to do both. In a 2013 study published in the Journal of Aging Research, the authors found that both cardio exercise and strength training improved spatial memory (for example, remembering where objects were placed in a room) in women ages 70 to 80. Cardio alone improved verbal memory (for example, being able to remember a list of words after a distraction). And in a 2012 study from the Archives of Internal Medicine, women in their 70s who strength-trained improved their associative memory, meaning that they remembered pairs of pictures that they had been shown earlier. This is the kind of memory that allows you to remember two pieces of information at once, like picturing not just your keys but also where you placed them.
The ketogenic diet — a high-fat and very low-carb eating plan — can be tough to start. After all, it’s likely a radical departure from the way you’re eating now (a typical standard American diet is high in carbohydrates and processed foods). But many people are trying the keto diet, which puts your body in a state of ketosis. That's what happens when your body’s carb-burning switch flips to a fat-burning one, a change that can cause weight loss and has even been credited with controlling diabetes. (1)
Focus on exercise: The most compelling studies favor physical activity for mental acuity, says Gary W. Small, M.D., the director of the UCLA Longevity Center and a coauthor of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program ($14, amazon.com). A study from the Annals of Internal Medicine found that people who were fitter at midlife had a 36 percent lower risk of developing dementia later in life than did their less-fit peers. “When people exercise, the areas that control memory, thinking, and attention increase in the brain,” says Small. “Regular exercisers also have less of the abnormal protein deposits in the brain that have been linked to Alzheimer’s.” That’s not to say that diet has no impact, says Small: “It’s just that the effects of exercise are more pronounced based on the evidence we have now.” Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids (such as fish, nuts, and flaxseed) and antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables (like strawberries and spinach) have been shown to improve brain health, while refined sugars and processed foods can have the opposite effect.
Of course, there are so many more reasons to exercise, and physical activity is amazing for your overall health and wellness. It’s just that if you want to lose weight, it may not be the best or only answer. “Honestly, I think people just don’t know where to start,” says Mangieri. “It’s easy to say you’re going to go to the gym for an hour. It’s much harder to think about what you’re eating all day, every day.” She recommends setting goals that are just as specific and achievable for healthy eating, which could be as simple as drinking a big glass of water right when you wake up, getting protein at breakfast, filling half of your plate with colorful vegetables, or going for a walk in the evening, instead of eating ice cream on the couch.
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Consequently, researchers have widely discredited the hCG diet, which involves using hCG injections, pellets, sprays, or drops, and consuming  as few as 500 calories daily. The diet is problematic not only because there’s a lack of research on hCG supplements, but also because the calorie requirement is dangerously low, potentially leading to nutrient deficiencies, fatigue, hormone imbalances, blood clots, and other issues. Thus, most experts agree the hCG diet is not safe for anyone, the Mayo Clinic notes. (35)


It is well known that vitamin D works to promote calcium absorption for strong bones. However, recent research also suggests that vitamin D may have important effects on the immune system and may help regulate cell growth and differentiation. A clinical trial is underway to determine what role vitamin D supplementation might play in reducing MS disease activity. Read more about vitamin D in Vitamin D Deficiency and Possible Role in Multiple Sclerosis. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis – Relationship between Vitamin D and Interferon β-1b presents data demonstrating how vitamin D might enhance the effect of interferon beta on MS disease activity. The National MS Society also provides guidelines for healthcare professionals on managing vitamin D issues in clinical practice.

If you’re like many resolution setters this time of year, you’ve already mapped out a route to your local gym. Maybe you’re planning to pound the treadmills or sweat it out in crowded studio classes. But if your ultimate goal is to drop extra pounds, you might want to ask how far all those miles and squats will really get you. According to a number of weight loss experts, focusing on your nutrition could give you a lot more bang for your buck. “By far, diet outweighs exercise if you want to lose weight,” says Heather Mangieri, RDN and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “You have to change your diet to change body composition. You can never out-exercise a bad diet.” So don’t sweat it—at least not quite so much. Here’s where to start with a weight loss resolution.
Hormones and specialized proteins found in body fat contribute to inflammation and oxidation, which in turn contribute to the development and progression of prostate cancer. Using diet and exercise to maintain a healthy weight helps limit your body fat and prevent this inflammation and oxidation. In addition, regular exercise and certain foods (especially fruits and vegetables) have natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. (Also, eating more fruits and vegetables may help reduce your intake of processed foods.)
The Mayo Clinic Diet is the official diet developed by Mayo Clinic, based on research and clinical experience. It focuses on eating healthy foods that taste great and increasing physical activity. It emphasizes that the best way to keep weight off for good is to change your lifestyle and adopt new health habits. This diet can be tailored to your own individual needs and health history — it isn't a one-size-fits-all approach.
When carbs go missing from a person's diet, the body uses up its glucose reserves and then breaks down stored fat into fatty acids. When fatty acids reach the liver, they're converted into an organic substance called ketones. The brain and other organs feed on ketones in a process called ketosis, which gives the diet its name. Keto-dieters eat lots of fat to maintain this state.
Take action: To maintain an even blood-sugar level, eat five to six times a day, or about once every three hours. In addition to your main meals, fit in two to three 200-calorie snacks. Ideal snacks contain lean protein, healthy fats, and complex carbohydrates—for instance, yogurt with granola, an apple with low-fat cheese, or peanut butter on crackers with a banana. Frequent eating can also help to reduce feelings of anxiety and depression (both of which can influence energy), since low blood sugar can increase your level of the stress hormone cortisol.
Plus, Turoff gives Hadid a thumbs-up for opting for a treat she’s really into. “If you have a craving, don’t just have a handful of dry cookies — go out and get the best cookie you can find,” says Turoff. “I want people to have a healthy relationship with dessert and feel good about eating something they find delicious rather than feeling obligated to buy diet desserts.”
Selecting the right food will be easier as you become accustomed to the Keto approach. Instead of lean meats, you’ll focus on skin-on poultry, fattier parts like chicken thighs, rib-eye steaks, grass-fed ground beef, fattier fish like salmon, beef brisket or pork shoulder, and bacon. Leafy greens such as spinach, kale and lettuce, along with broccoli, cauliflower and cucumbers, make healthy vegetable choices (but you’ll avoid starchy root foods like carrots, potatoes, turnips and parsnips). You can work in less-familiar veggies such as kohlrabi or daikon.
There's nothing fun about chafing. You can get the rash (caused by moisture and constant friction) on your thighs, around your sports bra, and even under your arms, to name a few hot spots! To prevent the next occurrence, try rubbing on an anti-chafe stick like Bodyglide For Her Anti-Chafing Stick ($9; amazon.com)in any spots that have the potential to chafe. Moisture-wicking fabrics help, too, so if you have a few quick-dry shirts (Nike, Asics, and Under Armour all make 'em), save those for your long runs or tough workouts, when chafing is most likely to occur.
Planning on picking up the pace tomorrow? Eat food that will help keep you going strong. For breakfast, opt for a high-carbohydrate meal—one similar to what you'll be eating on race day, so you can find out what foods digest best (for you!). Try a whole-grain English muffin or a bagel with peanut butter or a low-fat cream cheese. Then, have a well-rounded meal post-workout to help with recovery. Andrew Kastor's favorite? One to two slices French toast with a side of fruit. "The protein-to-carbohydrate ratio is perfect for enhancing my recovery," he says. We like that it's super-yummy, too.
Here’s what we do know: The keto diet may be useful in treating symptoms of epilepsy, a seizure disorder. “The use of keto in treating epilepsy has the most evidence,” Angelone says. One study conducted by Johns Hopkins Medicine, for example, followed epileptic patients on the keto diet and found that 36 percent of them had a 50 percent reduction in seizures after three months on the diet, and 16 percent were seizure-free. However, experts aren't entirely sure why the keto diet has this affect, she adds. 

Dr. Gardner and his colleagues designed the study to compare how overweight and obese people would fare on low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. But they also wanted to test the hypothesis — suggested by previous studies — that some people are predisposed to do better on one diet over the other depending on their genetics and their ability to metabolize carbs and fat. A growing number of services have capitalized on this idea by offering people personalized nutrition advice tailored to their genotypes.


There are many ways you can positively influence your health. Lifestyle choices, such as diet, exercise, and smoking or drinking, are influenced by habit, culture, and preferences and are different for each individual. Every day the foods you choose to eat and the amount of physical activity you get can impact your overall health as well as your prostate cancer risk, recovery, and survival.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital protocol for initiating the ketogenic diet has been widely adopted.[43] It involves a consultation with the patient and their caregivers and, later, a short hospital admission.[19] Because of the risk of complications during ketogenic diet initiation, most centres begin the diet under close medical supervision in the hospital.[9]

The benefits above are the most common ones. But there are others that are potentially even more surprising and – at least for some people – life changing. Did you know that a keto diet can help treat high blood pressure, may result in less acne, may help control migraine, might help with certain mental health issues and could have a few other potential benefits?


Around this time, Bernarr Macfadden, an American exponent of physical culture, popularised the use of fasting to restore health. His disciple, the osteopathic physician Dr. Hugh William Conklin of Battle Creek, Michigan, began to treat his epilepsy patients by recommending fasting. Conklin conjectured that epileptic seizures were caused when a toxin, secreted from the Peyer's patches in the intestines, was discharged into the bloodstream. He recommended a fast lasting 18 to 25 days to allow this toxin to dissipate. Conklin probably treated hundreds of epilepsy patients with his "water diet" and boasted of a 90% cure rate in children, falling to 50% in adults. Later analysis of Conklin's case records showed 20% of his patients achieved freedom from seizures and 50% had some improvement.[10]
Many diets, including Atkins and the keto diet, fit into this umbrella. A typical low-carb diet limits carbs to less than 60 g daily, but this can vary, according to the Mayo Clinic. (15) In a September 2015 review published in PLoS One, people following low-carb diets saw modest weight loss — although study authors note that long-term effects of the diet require further research. (16)
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